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Charging times depend on the infrastructure charging power and on the maximum power allowed by the vehicle, measured in kW; in case the two values differ from one another, the lowest one leads. Higher power means higher charging speed. The overall charging time depends, additionally, on the quantity of energy input in the vehicle (full or all the way) and on the size of the battery.
The charging infrastructures can be divided, according to their power, into:
Slow charging, with power below 10 kW and 6-8 hours for complete vehicle charging;
Quick charging, with power up to 22 kW and recharge times of 2-3 hours
Fast and ultrafast charging, with powers above 50 kW and up to 400 kW in direct current (DC) and charging times from one hour to less than 15 minutes.
The are 5 types of connectors:
-Type 1: for single-phase alternative current charging for a maximum charging power of approximately 7.3 kW
-Type 2 (“Mennekes”): European standard for charging in alternative current (AC) for a maximum charging power of 22kW on the charging outlet and up to 43 kW through the connector on the cable that is connected to the charging station, more common and used by almost all electric vehicles, excluding the lighter ones.
Type 3A for single-phase AC charging and for a maximum power of 3 kW, used only for light vehicles.
-Chademo for fast charging in DC with power up to 100 kW and with the cable attached to the charging infrastructure.
-CCS Combo 2 for fast charging in DC with power above 100 kW and with the cable attached to the charging infrastructure.
The legislation prohibits the use of charging adapters in public areas.
As of June 30th 2022 in Italy there are 30 thousand charging locations with public access, with 300 thousand circulating electric vehicles between BEV and PHEV. In Europe there are 330 thousand charging locations with public access.
There is still no official mapping but the PNIRE (The National Infrastructure Plan) foresees the creation of a Unique National Platform (PUN) for chargers in which this information will be collected. It is possible to have a map of the public charging stations with their status (busy, booked, available, under maintenance) using the apps of the different MSPs (Mobility Service Providers) that offer charging services and that also allow you to book them.
Hotels, restaurants, malls, gas stations, parking lots can offer their customers charging services, and show they are a company that cares about environmental sustainability issues. This will attract new customers and increase the length of their stay.
Both have a charging outlet, but while a PHEV is pushed by an internal combustion motor, assisted by an electric motor and with a range limited to a few tens of km, an electric car does not have a combustion motor and can run for over 500 km.
Considering the current composition of electric generators in Italy, an electric car pollutes less than half than a car that runs on gasoline. It is a unique technology that allows for the total elimination of local emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine dust (Pmx) produced by internal combustion motors.
Electric cars do not produce waste substances that get dispersed into the environment and, for this reason, they do not lead to traffic blocks and allow you to enjoy, in certain counties, the use of designated parking spots, free parking, and access to limited traffic zones, and in certain Regions tax exemption for 5 years.
Furthermore, electric cars are quiet and their use significantly betters quality of life: driving level, the direct transmission of power to the wheels makes them much faster than endothermic cars of the same category; when braking the car’s battery recharges (making it very convenient when driving in the city) without the need of the driver to barely touch the brake pedal, increasing comfort while driving.
Although the purchasing costs are higher compared to most internal combustion vehicles, they can still be lowered with government incentives and grants, and the maintenance costs are definitely lower because of the lower structural complexity.
An electric car consumes an average of 6 to 8 kWh to run for 100km and it requires a third of the energy compared to an internal combustion vehicle running the same distance due to its higher efficiency.
Electric batteries are designed and built to last as long as the car will, with a residual efficiency of at least 70% after 8 years and 300,000 km driven, corresponding to 1,000-1,500 charging cycles.